Highway 90, longest among Israeli roads, passes through many geological structures that are composed of different rock types, which are prone to the activities of workload, water, wind, heat and other agents of erosion.

This fact serves one of the reasons to conduct research on the long-term effect, on the infrastructure, of the dynamic changes brought about by unstable geological, climatic and environmental conditions.

A range of studies of the area were performed along this route, that included, inter alia, field mapping, environmental reports, field works (drilling, excavation, sampling, test pits, bull-dozer pits, etc) to provide ground for the making of comprehensive reports on the interaction of the given infrastructure on geological structures along its path and visa.

The group of geologist, in 2011, of which I was a part, indulged in both fieldworks and laboratory determination of rocks, their properties and mechanics, as well as geophysical and hydrogeological studies.

With the aim of conducting comprehensive study of the area, a drilling campaign was launched that involved spiral drilling, core drilling et cetera, making of holes and pits, as a result of which geological, geophysical and hydrogeological information of the area was obtained and consequently, series of laboratory works related to soil and rock mechanics were performed.


The gold-ore deposit of Kalana is situated in region of Sikasso, South Mali, West Africa. It is a peneplain structure the surface of which is covered by laterite shield.

Gold, in this area, is found in the followings: alluvial and eluvial placers; intrusive formations like dykes; sandstone-schist layers and intrusive rocks.

During the period between 1991 and 1993 a range of research works was performed on the studies of the aforementioned deposit, by me, under the leadership of Professor Troshenko and Dr. Sulaiman Sangare, in Krivoy Rog Ore-mining Institute, Krivoy Rog, Ukraine. These works led to the publication of articles on the subject of Kalana gold-ore deposits with aforementioned as co-authors.

A comprehensive study was conducted during which calculation of reserve in a given part of the field was made, attempt was made at defining the distribution of ore, then gold and its mineral associates, particularly pyrite and arsenopyrite, were researched upon. The method adopted for the latest involved, among other things, the study of the followings: typomorphism of crystal shapes, crystal habits and anatomy of crystals and grains; typomorphism of composition and structure; typomorphism of physical properties; application of these typomorphic properties in the exploration of gold-ore deposits.


In view of the wide distribution of these rocks, their increasing utilization in construction and as decorative components, there is a need to find out their reactionary behaviour over time and study the properties that make them most suitable for these functions.

In the territory of Krivbass, Krivoy rog, Ukraine, these rocks are represented by tonalites, plagioklaz-granodiorites, plagioklaz-leikogranites, plagioklaz-alaskites, plagioklas-aplites, plagioklaz-pegmatite and trondiemites all of Dnepropetrovsk, Saksagansk and Inguletsk complexes of Archean.

Between 1997 and 2001, I was engaged in the study of the formation of these rocks, metamorphic processes through which they had undergone, their decorative properties, effect of metamorphic and post-metamorphic processes on their decorativity. To achieve the aim of this study, the followings were scrutinized: 1) physical and chemical properties of these rocks; 2) their structural and textural peculiarities; 3) their mineral components, 4) evolution of mineral components and their secondary changes.

Iron-ore and Underground Mining

During the period between 1997 and 2001, I joined the Kirova Ore-management Company, Krivoy Rog, Ukraine. Ours was the geological department that ensured reserve for continuous life-span of the mine, grading of iron ore, tracing ore-bodies, collection of geological data related to the dip and direction of layer, graphical representation of these data and subsequent logical interpretation.


Due to constant increase in world population there is tendencya for increase demand for food and consequently for fertilizer. Thus, the exploration for phosphates in Angola is beneficial for the country in more than one way- it is an investment into the future.

The goal of the exercise was to ascertain the size of the field, shape of the ore body, horizontal and vertical extent of mineralization, defining depth of overburden, defining the rock type of the bedrock, types of matrices, in addition to these there was a need to provide the basis for the calculation of reserve, increase reserve, provide the basis for grading of ore and conduct grading over the whole area of the deposit, and give factual quantitative and qualitative information as to profitability and technical possibility of mining and processing the coprolitic phospate ore in Angola. At the end of the operation, the deposit was suppose to be ready for the next stage- exploitation.

The following procedures, inter alia, were implemented for the achievement of these goals: -drilling, detail logging, sampling, excavation, visual search; -determination of rock type and mineralogical composition of both bedrock and overburden; -description of coprolite containing matrices; -determination of chemical composition of coprolites from different matrices, their phosphate content and radioactivity; -determination of factors that affect the choice of mine type and processing technology.

A large volume of information was gathered that had to be processed using 2D and 3D softwares for its graphical presentation, in a bid to fully comprehend the nature of the deposit.

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